3 ways digital twins can optimize Open RAN 5G networks


As 5G cell networks develop in complexity, it’s changing into unimaginable for human community engineers to handle the community with out automation. The evolution from rules-based automation to using AI/ML is making a class of administration options that may anticipate issues within the community and repair them in actual time. 

Digital twins are broadly utilized in advanced digital methods that want an actual mirror picture of the digital atmosphere in all its complexity in order that testing and optimization might be executed with out disrupting the real-world system at work. 

In cell networks, using digital twins offers the modeling and simulation capabilities to coach these AI-based community administration methods. 

Digital twins and RICs working collectively

So as to add new administration performance and management to Open RAN, the O-RAN ALLIANCE created requirements for the non-real-time (non-RT) and close to real-time (near-RT) RAN clever controllers (RICs). 

RICs take the position of central controllers for community operations, together with the duties associated to radio useful resource administration. The operational duties are optimized by using the proper apps within the RICs, whereby AI/ML turns into a robust software that may probably deal with many advanced issues which might be tough or unsolvable at this time. 

For calibration, AI/ML fashions require loads of information, which might not be obtainable on the preliminary part of community rollout. The shortage of information for coaching functions might be overcome by a digital twin, whose fashions can generate information by themselves. 

Then, the digital twin evolves with the enlargement of the actual community and there’s a creation of a cycle of information alternate: 1) the digital twin provides significant information to RICs to coach AI/ML fashions, that are used to deduce optimum community configurations; 2) RIC feeds the up to date community configurations to the actual community to take care of community operations; and three) the info reflecting the well being and effectivity of the actual community are gathered to recalibrate the fashions within the digital twin. 

There are three constructing blocks for creating an Open RAN digital twin:

  • The modelling entities that create correct digital replicas of various points of a RAN community. Knowledge captured from the Open RAN standardized interfaces (O1, O2, E2 and A1) is used to synchronize the fashions with the reside bodily community.
  • The RAN Situation Generator is powered by AI/ML know-how and routinely parameterizes the fashions to generate billions of coaching situations for the AI/ML fashions. The RAN Situation Generator also can routinely evolve itself based mostly on the efficiency suggestions from the RAN analytic module, producing increasingly more difficult coaching information set for the AI/ML intelligence and efficiency to repeatedly enhance. 
  • Superior Visualization simplifies the info and presents it to community engineers when their enter is required. 

Examples of modelling entities are:

  • Modeling Bodily RF Propagation: Ray tracing is more and more getting used to realistically mannequin the bodily RF propagation traits within the mobility/RF mannequin utilized by the community. This method estimates the RF propagation traits and influence of buildings and different obstructions based mostly on calculating the trail features of propagation paths by way of a geometrical area of various velocity, absorption traits, and a number of reflecting surfaces.

Each the ray tracing algorithm and the measurement information that calibrate the penetration loss, reflection and scattering traits of the surfaces have a bearing on the accuracy of the calculations. Utilizing a digital twin offers a considerable amount of data that’s continuously up to date enabling these calculations to be made rather more precisely. 

  • Modeling RAN and cloud: Modeling RAN and cloud-based community components is difficult as a result of numerous methods and assets have dynamic behaviors. The mannequin has to account for each the altering infrastructure and has to remain synchronized with real-time states of the bodily community. This requires a mannequin that relaxes the real-time constraints of the digital twin to close actual time which reduces computing complexity. Alternatively, the digital twin can make the most of a GPU-based cloud service that gives the extra compute wanted for this complexity. Both approach, the digital twin permits the community, UE state, name move and KPI prediction capabilities wanted for this modeling.

Three rising use circumstances

How can digital twins be used at this time? Listed below are some use circumstances the place the interaction between digital twin and AI/ML fashions in RICs is important:

Community Vitality Saving There are thrilling new capabilities to regulate energy ranges of community components when site visitors is low in an effort to save power. All of those methodologies use historic data to stability energy consumption with sustaining efficiency – an excellent software for a digital twin.

Huge multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) antennas and community densification, for instance, are applied to enhance efficiency of ultra-reliable and low latency communications (uRLLC), cell broadband (MBB), and machine-type communications (MTC). However mMIMO takes extra compute energy rising an MNO’s carbon footprint. 

To reduce the additional energy wanted, mMIMO antennas might be downgraded by turning off unneeded RF circuits throughout low site visitors intervals. Equally, sure cells or carriers might be switched off throughout low site visitors hours. Utilizing energy administration capabilities constructed into Intel structure processors can additional scale back energy consumption by switching off or decreasing CPU cycles of different RAN components reminiscent of distributed models (DUs) and centralized models (CUs). With a digital twin offering historic data, the RIC can downgrade efficiency of the antennas when site visitors is low saving power. 

mMIMO Beamforming Optimization Absolutely digital mMIMO could also be too pricey for some websites, particularly these websites the place a excessive service radio frequency is used. The choice resolution is utilizing hybrid antenna arrays, which nonetheless can exploit the massive levels of freedom a mMIMO antenna system can supply. 

Nonetheless, with out full digital management of every antenna ingredient these antennas are managed in teams. As such, the cell terminals in a cell are served by a grid-of-beams – these beams of various instructions and widths are semi-static and designed to cowl a geometrical area of cell. 

However cell terminals are by no means distributed uniformly in an space. A grid-of-beams might be optimized to offer higher expertise to the customers. The optimization might be executed iteratively with the assistance of AI/ML. Any change of the consumer distribution will trigger a change of grid-of-beams optimization because the AI/ML mannequin is ready to characterize the outcomes of the optimized configuration.

Zero Contact Community Administration The complexity of at this time’s networks makes human administration overwhelming. Zero-touch community administration is in excessive demand as no human error is feasible when optimized configuration guidelines are used. The centralized management provided by RICs, with important AI/ML enter, makes RAN and the entire radio communication system extra clever, therefore, brings in advantages in each financial and environmental points. 


Community complexity is right here to remain, driving MNOs to embrace automation and AI/ML instruments to maintain the community throughput optimized and to make sure the minimal power use for price financial savings and sustainability. Using digital twins makes obtainable an vital diagnostic software for Open RAN and different community components. 

With digital twins within the system, MNOs have a brand new approach to predict the behaviors of the actual community. They will additionally use digital twins for low price upkeep of, and fast response to, faults as a result of digital twin’s extremely correct reproduction of the bodily community.  Because the three use circumstances on this paper present, digital twin methods add a number of worth to community deployment and operations.


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